Diabetes mellitus (sometimes called “sugar diabetes”) is a state that happens when the body can not use glucose (a form of sugar) normally. Glucose is the most important source of energy for your body’s cells. The levels of sugar in the blood are controlled by a hormone called insulin, which is made by the pancreas. Insulin helps glucose enter the cells.
In diabetes, the pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin (type 1 diabetes) or the entire body can not respond normally to the insulin that is created (type 2 diabetes). This causes glucose levels in the blood to rise, resulting in symptoms such as increased urination, extreme thirst, and unexplained weight loss.
Type 1 diabetes (previously Called insulin-dependent diabetes)
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. This type of diabetes, also called juvenile-onset diabetes, accounts for 10-15 percent of people with the disease. It can appear at any age, but generally under 40, and can be triggered by environmental factors like viruses, diet or compounds in individuals genetically predisposed.
Type 2 diabetes (previously Called non-insulin dependent diabetes)
Type 2 diabetes is the most frequent type of diabetes, affecting 85-90% of all people with the disease. This type of diabetes, also called late-onset diabetes, is characterised by insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. The disease is strongly genetic in origin but lifestyle factors such as excess weight, inactivity, higher blood pressure and poor diet are major risk factors for its growth. Symptoms may not show for several years and, by the time that they appear, important problems may have grown. People with type 2 diabetes are twice as likely to suffer cardiovascular disease. Type 2 diabetes may be treated by dietary changes, exercise and/or pills. Insulin injections may later be required.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)
GDM, or carbohydrate intolerance, is diagnosed during pregnancy via an oral glucose tolerance test. Between 5.5 and 8.8 percent of pregnant women develop GDM in Australia. Risk factors for GDM include a family history of diabetes, increasing maternal age, obesity and being a member of a community or cultural group with a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Though the carbohydrate intolerance generally returns to normal following the birth, the mother has a substantial risk of developing permanent diabetes whereas the baby is more likely to develop obesity and impaired glucose hypertension or tolerance later in life. Self-care and dietary changes are essential in treatment.
Causes Of Diabetes
To understand diabetes, it’s necessary to first understand the normal process of food metabolism. Many things happen when food is digested:
A sugar called glucose enters the bloodstream. Glucose is a source of fuel to your body.
An organ called the pancreas makes insulin. The role of insulin is to move glucose from the bloodstream into muscle, fat, and liver cells, where it can be used as fuel.
Individuals with diabetes have high blood glucose. This is because their pancreas does not produce enough insulin or their muscle, fat, and liver cells do not respond to insulin normally, or both.
There are 3 Big Kinds of diabetes:
Your body makes little if any insulin, and daily injections of insulin are needed to sustain life.
Type 2 diabetes is a lot more common than type 1 and constitutes most of all cases of diabetes. It usually occurs in adulthood. The pancreas doesn’t make enough insulin to keep blood glucose levels normal, often because the body doesn’t respond well to the insulin. A lot of people with type 2 diabetes do not know they have it, although it’s a serious illness. Type 2 diabetes is becoming more common due to the growing number of elderly Americans, increasing obesity, and failure to exercise.
Gestational diabetes is high blood glucose that develops at any time during pregnancy in a female who does not have diabetes.
Diabetes affects over 20 million Americans. There Are Lots of risk factors for diabetes, including:
1. A parent, brother, or sister with diabetes
3. Age over 45 Decades
3. Some ethnic groups (particularly African Americans, Native Americans, Asians, Pacific Islanders, and Hispanic Americans)
4. Gestational diabetes or delivering a baby weighing more than 9 pounds
5. High blood pressure
6. High blood levels of triglycerides (a Kind of fat molecule)
7. High blood glucose level
8. Not getting enough exercise
The American Diabetes Association recommends that all adults over the age 45 be screened for diabetes every 3 years. Someone at high risk ought to be screened more often.
Studies show that individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes can prevent or delay the onset of the disease by losing 5 to 7% of their body fat. You can certainly do it by eating healthy and getting 30 minutes of physical activity 5 days a week. In other words: you don’t have to knock yourself out to prevent diabetes. The trick is: small steps that result in big rewards. Find out more about your risk for developing type 2 diabetes and the small steps you can take to delay or stop the disease and live a long, healthy life.
Small Steps. Big Rewards.
See Your Diet
There is nobody magical diet that works for everybody. Nor is there one diet that works best for a single individual over a long time. Pay attention to your own genetics, and also to your ethnic group’s traditional foods. If you are African American, that doesn’t mean overcooked vegetables or pork rinds. Such junk came on the nutritional scene just recently, and isn’t a true cultural food. The same is true for Italians who overdose on pepperoni pizza. Being Italian myself as, well as having enjoyed fantastic African cuisine, I can tell you there’s a lot more to those diets compared to the current introductions often associated with these cultural groups.
Except for Eskimos and a few other highly specialized ethnic groups, all diets need to adhere to the same few macronutrient rules. For example:
Remove as many processed carbohydrates as you can.
Don’t eat carbohydrates 2 hours prior to bedtime.
Balance your fat/carbos/protein in a roughly 30-40-30 ratio (that is a guideline, not a hard and fast rule–it doesn’t work for everybody).
Eat at least 5 or 6 small meals a day.
Did you know that the peanuts offered on airlines are LESS fattening compared to fat-free pretzels?
It is true. Stay away from fat-free foods–they create your insulin levels do a yo-yo, and that causes you to put on fat. Yuck. Worse, it sets the stage for adult-onset diabetes.
Do NOT eat white flour, bleached flour, enriched flour, or any other sort of wheat flour that’s not whole wheat. The glycemic effects of such flours will work against you. Eat whole grain flours, and attempt to obtain a variety. Amaranth and soy are two good flours. Eat oat groats rather than oatmeal. In short, get your grains in the least-processed form you can. This is true for everybody, irrespective of genetics (unless you have a malabsorption problem). This one “trick” can help you keep your glucose level on an even keel, and that’s paramount to diabetes prevention and control.
What also holds true for everybody is: drink a lot of water! Fill a gallon jug twice per day, and be sure you drink all of it. As soon as you get as lean as you wish to be, cut back into one gallon if you want to. For added fat loss, drink chilled (but not super cold) water. Sodas do not count. Such drinks are incredibly unhealthy, for reasons I won’t cover here. However, I will say that if you would like to get osteoporosis, soft beverages are for you personally. Soft drinks result in soft bones.
Be sure that you consume at least 5 or 6 small meals a day, instead of one huge one. Doing this amounts out your blood glucose and your blood sugar. Forget about that complete feeling. If you find yourself overeating out of anxiety or nervousness, fix the underlying issue — don’t add to it by poor eating!